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WAEC GCE 1ST SERIES GEOGRAPHY PAPER 3

(3a)
mass movement is defined as the large movement of rock, soil and debris downward due to the force of gravity. In other words, the earth’s outer crust is being ‘wasted’ away on a ‘massive’ scale and falling to lower elevations.

(3b)
(i)increased slope steepness
(ii)increased water
(iii)decreased vegetation
(iv)earthquakes.

(3c)
(i)Composition of Slope Material; Mass wasting is more promote on slopes that contain clay and shale. Without going into great detail here, the shape and composition of individual clay particles can absorb water and prevent water from peculating through the ground

(ii)Weight and Friction of Slope; slope will fail is the load or weight of that slope. Adding weight to a weakened slope can obviously cause it to slide easier, especially on steep slopes. This added weight tends to occur by building on top of weak slopes, increasing the steepness of the slope, or over-saturating the slope.

(iii)Regional Climate Conditions; A region’s climate can also determine the likelihood of a landslide. Climate is based on temperature and precipitation. Mass movement is promote in the spring-time when snow melt, water saturation, and runoff is greatest.

(iv)Water Content within Slopes; The amount of water in the soil is a major factor that promote mass movement in the stability of a slope. When you build a sand castle, water is needed to build the walls and towers. That is because water has surface tension and is attracted to each other. This allows you to build towers greater than the angle of repose.

==================================

 

(5a)
(i)Ventifacts
(ii)Rock Pedestals
(iii)Zeugen

(5b)
(i)they are formed in desert area.
(ii)the alternating horizontal layers of hard and soft rocks occur.
(iii)The top layer of hard rock is jointed and has cracks.
(iv)The furrows are formed and gradually widened.
(v)They creates a ridge-furrow landscape.
(vi)they are table area shape of the rock.

(5c)
Zeugen is formed in desert area where alternating horizontal layers of hard and soft rocks occur. The top layer of hard rock is jointed and has cracks. Weathering opens up the joints deepening them to reach the soft layer of rocks. Abrasion continues, furrows are formed and gradually widened. The hard rock forms ridges separating the furrows. This process creates a ridge-furrow landscape. The ridge is called Zeugen. In other words These particles on contact with the rock mass, scour the soft layers of rock more intensively than the hard layers of rock. This results in the formation of ridges and furrows. The ridges are referred to as zeugens

===================================

(8a)
Vegetation resources are those things, which are derived from the forest, and savannah vegetation and are of immerse important to man, animals and plants, it is a key component of an ecosystem and as such, it is involved in the regulation of various biogeochemical cycles, e.g., water, carbon, nitrogen.

(8b)
(i)Employment forest vegetation provides job opportunities for lumbermen, hunters and saw millers.

(ii)Pulp- some forests produce pulp trees which are used for manufacturing papers and cartons

(iii)Food supply- A lot of cash crops, foods crops, fruits and seeds are derived from the vegetation which now serves as food for man. Similarly, animals are equally gotten from the wilds, which serve as sources of protein for man.

(8c)
(i)Environmental: the disappearance of habitats essential for flora and fauna and, therefore, the extinction of species. There are some 30 million different animal and plant species in the world, and of these, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) says that; in 2018, 26,197 species are threatened with extinction.

(ii)Economic: 33% of the world’s soils are moderately to highly degraded, according to a United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report published in 2017. If the erosion of fertile soil continues at the same rate, agricultural commodity prices will inevitably soar.

(iii)For Health: if we do not take care of the forests there will be fewer CO2Nota sinks and therefore more air pollution. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nine out of ten people worldwide breathe air with high levels of pollutants and seven million people die each year from ambient (outdoor) and domestic air pollution.

Posted by on 27th January 2020.

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