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NECO 2019 HISTORY OBJ AND ESSAY VERIFIED ANSWER

(7)
(i)It was export import oriented economy colonial economy specialized in the production of raw material for the metropolitan industries and importation of manufactured goods to Africa.
 
(ii)Colonial economy was characterized by establishment of weak and small processing industries. The few factories that were established were for import substitution. This was because colonies had to remain in producers of raw materials.
 
(iii)Some of the colonies were mono-culture. They specialized in the production of one major commodity for example, Mauritius specialized in the production of sugar, Ghana produced cocoa and Liberia produced rubber.
 
(iv)Colonial production was based on coercion. The colonial economies were supering imposed and the Africans were forced to produce for export rather than for their own consumption.
 
(v)The colonial economy involved consumption of physical infrastructure such as road and railways in order to transport raw materials to the coast labourers to the plantation and mining centre.
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(6)
(i)Executive Powers; The Oba’s were the chief administrators of the Yoruba states; they exercised executive powers over all the people of the Empire. Oba’s pay tribute to the Alaafin in respect to their ancestral home, and those tributes were also a source of wealth to the empire.
 
(ii)Legislative Powers; The powers of the Alaafin were checked by a group of “Kingmakers” called the Oyomesi. They exercised legislative functions and was headed by the Bashorun. The Bashorun plays a vital role in the formation of the empire, and has the power to impeach either the Alaafin of the Oba’s.
 
(iii)Judicial Powers; Oyo Empire was very decentralized in nature and powers were distributed among several bodies to prevent authoritarianism. The powers of the Oyomesi were in turn, checked by the presence of the Ogboni Fraternity. The Ogboni was considered to be very scared and commonly referred to as “The Mouthpiece of the Gods”; with their office headed by the Ifa Priest.
 
(iv)Early Period; It is pivotal to note that the rich culture of the Yoruba’s cut across the shores of Africa and even to Southern America. Oyo Empire was well known for it’s industrial productions in brass making. Because of its wealth and military skills, Old Oyo was – and still remains – the most important and authoritative faction of all early Yoruba principalities.
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(9)
In pursuing the goal of regional economic cooperation and development, Nigeria helped create ECOWAS, which seeks to harmonise trade and investment practices for its 16 West African member countries and ultimately to achieve a full customs union. Nigeria also has taken the lead in articulating the views of developing nations on the need for modification of the existing international economic order. Nigeria has played a central role in the ECOWAS efforts to end the civil war in Liberia and contributed the bulk of the ECOWAS peacekeeping forces sent there in 1990. Nigeria also has provided the bulk of troops for ECOMOG forces in Sierra Leone . Nigeria has enjoyed generally good relations with its immediate neighbours. In other words Nigeria had ratified the protocol, and would allow citizens of ECOWAS member states live and work in Nigeria without visas and work permits. However, only immigrants in six professional categories would be allowed.
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(2)
political Organization. At the summit of precolonial society was the king ( oba ), who was the focal point of all administrative, religious, commercial, and judicial concerns. He was the last resort in court matters, the recipient of taxes and tribute, the controller of trade, the theoretical owner of all the land in the kingdom, and the chief executive and legislator. As the divine king, he crystallized generalized ancestor worship in the worship of his own ancestors. It is in his office, then, that the various hierarchies met.
The members of the king’s family were automatically part of the nobility. His mother was a title holder ( iyoba ) in one of the palace societies and maintained her own court near Benin City, and his younger brothers were sent to be hereditary chiefs of villages throughout the kingdom, thus constituting part of a limited, rural-based elite. Besides the king and his family, the political structure consisted of the holders of various chiefly titles, who were organized into three main orders of chiefs: the seven uzama , the palace chiefs, and the town chiefs. These various orders of chiefs formed the administrative
bureaucracy of the kingdom, and their main concern was to augment the king’s civil and ritual authority. They constituted the state council, which had an important role in creating laws, regulating festivals, raising taxes, declaring war, and conducting rituals. The kingdom was formerly divided into a number of tribute units, which corresponded to local territorial groupings. Each was controlled by a title holder in Benin City, who acted as the intermediary between the villagers and the king and whose main duty was to collect taxes and tribute in the form of money (cowries) and goods (cattle, yams, etc.). The income the king received from these sources enabled him to carry on elaborate state rituals. The king could also call on villagers to supply labor for the upkeep of the royal palace. At the end of the eighteenth century, for example, senior chiefs rebelled against the king, and a long civil war ensued, which the king finally won. According to oral traditions, several obas were in fact deposed.
In contemporary Nigeria, Edo State officials consult with the Benin king and chiefs.
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Posted by on 17th June 2019.

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