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Land tenure system is defined as the system of land ownership or acquisition by individual, family, community, or government agency either for temporary or permanent use.

(Leasehold systems)
(i)It ensures the use of availability land.
(ii)It enables the farmer to maximize the use of the land in terms of maintenance of the soil fertility in order to improve the productivity of crops.

(Freehold system)
(i)The farmer can use the land to secure loan from banks.
(ii)Proper planning in the development of such land can be done.

-Pest and diseases-
(Pick Any Three)*
(i) Agrochemicals/pesticides such as fungicides, fumigants, and nematicides have been developed to control pests.
(ii) Drugs have been developed to counteract the effects of diseases and pests.
(iii) Vaccines have been developed which can be used to prevent a whole range of diseases in farm animals.
(iv) Studies have been made on the life cycles of pests and parasites for their control or prevention.
(v) Various types of herbicides have been developed for effective control of weeds.

(Meteorology and climatology)
(i) These technologies are being applied at different meteorological scales.
(ii) Improving forecast accuracy and efficiency.
(iii) Radar is an important remote sensing technology used in forecasting.

Fibre manufacturing industry
(Choose Any three)

Vegetable oil processing industry
(Choose Any Three)

-Cereal processing industry-
(Choose Any Three)

(i)Inorganic (Mineral)matter = 45%
(ii)Organic matter = 5%
(iii)Soil water = 25%
(iv)Soil air = 25%
(v)Living organisms = 5%

(i)land is used for production of food crop
(ii)land is used for livestock production
(iii)land is used for Forestry
(iv)land is used for wildlife conservative
(v)land is used in fishery
(vi)land is used for construction of residential housing and building

Weathering is defined as the disintegration or break down of rocks into tiny pieces to form soil. it is also the act of breaking down of rock masses(rock minerals) into simpler forms through the agents of physical, chemical, and biological processes.

In tabular form

-Under sandy soil-
(i)It is coarse grained
(ii)Low capillarity action
(iii)High percolation rate
(iv)It easily gets hot and cold
(v)Easy to work
(vi)It has large pore spaces

-Under clay soil-
(i)It is fine grained
(ii)Capillarity is very high
(iii)Percolation is low
(iv)It does not easily get hot and cold
(v)Difficult/heavy to work
(vi)It has small/fine pore spaces

Soil structure refers to the ways in which the different particles of the soil are packed or arranged. It is also referred to as the shape and arrangement of primary particles to form compound particles.


(Choose Any four)
(i)It determines the level of fertility of the soil
(ii)It also prevents erosion and waterlogging
(iii)A good soil structure supports aeration
(iv)A good soil structure has good water-retaining capacity
(v)It also supports the growth of crops
(vi)A good soil structure promotes the activities of soil microorganisms.

Irrigation is defined as the artificial or man-made application of water to soil or land for farming purposes. In other words, irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil to supplement insufficient rainfall.

(i)Drilled wells
(ii)Surface water
(iii)Drainage ponds

(Choose Any Four)
(i)Drainage helps in reclaiming waterlogged soil for crop production
(ii)Drainage improves soil aeration for good root respiration
(iii)Drainage leaches excess salts from soil thereby preventing the death of plants arising from poisoning
(iv)Drainage helps to increase the soil temperature for the benefit of crop plants
(v)Drainage improves the soil structure, thereby improving the water-holding capacity of the soil
(vi)Drainage reduces the incidence of crop disease and enhances early planting of crops

Mixed cropping involves the growing of two or more crops on the same piece of land at the same time, during the same growing season WHILE Mixed farming involves the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals simultaneously on the same piece of land or farm.

Crop rotation is the act of planting different types of crops on the same piece of land in a definite sequence. WHILE
Shifting cultivation is a system of farming where a farmer cultivates on a piece of land for some years, until yields start to decreases.

Monocropping is the practice of cultivating a single crop species each growing season and harvesting it before another crop is planted WHILE pastoral farming is a system of farming whereby grazing animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats are kept.

Taungya farming is the act of planting of arable crops at early stages of forest establishment and the arable crops are harvested before the trees form canopies WHILE
Lay farming is the cultivation of food crops with pasture crops. The food crop is grown and harvested, before the forage or pasture grass is grown for one or more years.

Selective Exploration: Selective exploration is the process of cutting or harvesting only matured trees in a forest. it is a way of concentrating certain selected species of timber in a forest reserve.


Regeneration: Regeneration is the process of forest regrowth after it has been exploited. It is a deliberate government policy in the restoration of the deforested area after exploitation to balance the ecosystem.

Afforestation: Afforestation is the process of establishing forest plantations in any area. It involves the complete removal of natural vegetation before planting new forest species.

Pests: Pests are organisms which through their feeding habits cause physical damage and or discomfort to other organisms called hosts. Examples of pests are mites, lice, ticks, houseflies, etc

Pathogens: Pathogens are microorganisms that cause diseases in farm animals. Examples of pathogens are bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa.

Vectors: Vectors are also pests which besides causing physical damage to the hosts, transmit disease-causing organisms to farm animals. Examples of vectors are ticks, mites, and fleas

Parasites: Parasites are a class of organisms that live on or in their hosts permanently. They establish a physiological relationship with the hosts and rely on them totally for food and protection. example of parasites are ticks, lice, mites liver flukes, etc

Transplanting: Transplanting is the transfer of seedling from nursery beds to their permanent positions in the field. Tools used for Transplanting are hand trowel, digger, hoe, or cutlass.

Supplying: Supplying is the replacement of seeds that fail to germinate or seedling that dies. It is carried out to maintain the desired plant population. It is usually manually done.

Thinning: Thinning is the removal of weak plants from a stand to give a rise to one or two vigorous crop plants. it is usually done by hand and practiced when the crop plants are very young

Seed rate: Seed rate refers to the quantity of seeds required to plant on hectare of land. The quantity of seeds used usually depends on the spacing or plant population desired. (eg the seed rate of maize is 25 – 30kg/hectare)

Agricultural extension is a process whereby modern farming techniques and research findings are taken to the farmers through extension workers, and problems of the farmers are taken to research institutions for solution


Agricultural extension is the process, system, or service which assists farmers or farm people through educational procedures in improving farming methods and techniques.

(Choose Any Five)
(i)Acquisition of skill: They helps the farmers to acquire skills and specialization in the production of crops and livestock
(ii)Teaches Land management techniques: They introduce and teach farmers land management techniques which increase land fertility and productivity.
(iii)Supervision of agricultural loans: They help to supervise the beneficiaries of agricultural loans.
(iv)Teaches improved Farming practices: They teach farmers improved practices in the cultivation, rearing, and processing of crops and livestock.
(v)Teaches improved practices in product processing: It enables farmers to be taught improved practices in the processing of livestock and crops
(vi)Collection and collation of basic information: They help to collect and collate basic information relating to rural programmes.


production record: Production record shows the yields of crop cultivated on the farm. It also shows the produce from livestock or poultry. Production records also help in variety selection. They help the farmer to keep track of how well the farm is doing. These records are prepared every week.

Inventory record: Inventory record is the listing of all assets on the farm and their money worth or value. In other words, it is a record that gives a full list of assets and liability of a farm in both physical and monetary terms. The inventory book will show details such as the quality of the item, date of purchase, price, and other useful information.

Farm dairy: Farm dairy is the record of daily activities on the farm. It is also a record of events about the farm. It serves as a good reference book to obtain information about the farm. It could show the movement of staff and visitors to the farm, the amount of rainfall, and losses to thieves. A typical farm record shows the type of work done, date, the number of workers, time spent, observations, and others.

Input record: Input record shows all input acquired and utilized during the period. It shows the levels of input application. It is used in combination with the output records to determine resource productivity. This record is used to keep track of all agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, seeds, etc. This record is used to keep track of all agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, seeds, etc

(7ci)Appreciation: This refers to the gain or increase in the value or worth of an asset as the asset is being used over time e.g growing crops, young farm animals, cash crops appreciate.

(7cii)Salvage value: This is the amount in which an asset is sold off when it is longer economical to keep or when the cost of maintenance of the asset is too high.

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